New York Bakery Co has secured an £11.5m investment package from parent company Maple Leaf Bakery UK to expand the business, following increasing bagel sales.Its existing Rotherham factory will be extended to increase capacity, which will see it become the largest bagel factory in Europe, according to the firm.The announcement comes only a week after Maple Leaf revealed it would be closing its Walsall site, which manufactures sliced bread, to concentrate on the growth of its speciality bread product brands, such as New York Bakery Co.Following a 66% increase in sales since the relaunch New York Bakery Co’s bagel range in January, the firm is to invest £11.5m in the infrastructure of the business, and has also been allocated a £3m communications budget.The firm said its UK expansion plans will further strengthen the brand’s category leadership; it already holds a 76% market share.According New York Bakery Co, its bagel relaunch was the biggest value contributor to the morning goods category this year, adding over £8m in incremental sales since the beginning of this year (Nielsen Scantrack Value Sales Ytd 09/07/11).Simon Foster, VP marketing of Maple Leaf Bakery UK, said: “The significant backing by Maple Leaf will enable us to move forward with our ambitious expansion plans in the next five to 10 years. As a result we can now increase our capacity at our Rotherham site to meet growing consumer demand and support our growth aspirations as the market leader in speciality bagels.”>>Maple Leaf closes bakery despite increase in profits>>Profits up 3% for Maple Leaf Bakery UK
Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health, Walter Reed ArmyInstitute of Research, and a team of collaborators have observed forthe first time that the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) increases bymany folds following infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Thisfinding implicates EBV as a contributory cause to multiple sclerosis.The study was published in an advance online edition of the journal Annalsof Neurology and will appear in a later print edition.Hundred of thousands of individuals not infected with EBV werefollowed up for several years through repeated blood samplescollections. Researchers were then able to determine the time whenindividuals developed an EBV infection and its relation to MS onset.“The recruitment of individuals before they were infected with EBV andfollowing up with them for several years is the critical methodologicalaspect that makes this study qualitatively different from all previouswork,” said AlbertoAscherio, senior author of the study and professor of epidemiologyand nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and professor ofmedicine at Harvard Medical School.MS is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system.Women are more likely than men to get the disease and it is the mostcommon neurologically disabling disease in young adults. Althoughgenetic predisposition plays an important role in determiningsusceptibility, past studies have shown that environmental factors areequally important.EBV is a herpes virus and one of the most common human virusesworldwide. Infection in early childhood is common and usuallyasymptomatic. Late age at infection, however, often causes infectiousmononucleosis. In the U.S., upwards of 95% of adults are infected withthe virus, but free of symptoms. EBV has been associated with some typesof cancer and can cause serious complications when the immune system issuppressed, for example, in transplant recipients. There is noeffective treatment for EBV.This is the first study based on the longitudinal follow-up ofseveral thousand individuals who were not infected with EBV at the timeof recruitment. The study population was made up of active-duty US Army,Navy, and Marines personnel who have at least one blood sample in theDepartment of Defense Serum Repository. The electronic databases of thePhysical Disability Agencies of the US Army and Navy were then searchedfor individuals whose records indicated a possible diagnosis of MSreported between 1992 and 2004.The researchers selected 305 individuals diagnosed with MS and whohad blood specimens collected before the date of their diagnosis. Twocontrols for each case were then selected from the serum database andmatched by branch of service, sex, date of blood collection, and age attime of blood collection.The study found that MS risk is extremely low amongindividuals not infected with EBV, but it increases sharply in the sameindividuals following EBV infection.“The observation that MS occurred only after EBV is a big stepforward,” said Alberto Ascherio. “Until now we knew that virtually allMS patients are infected with EBV, but we could not exclude twonon-causal explanations for this finding: that EBV infection is aconsequence rather than a cause of MS, and that individuals who are EBVnegative could be genetically resistant to MS. Both of theseexplanations are inconsistent with the present findings,” said Ascherio.“The evidence is now sufficiently compelling to justify theallocation of more resources to the development of interventionstargeting EBV infection, or the immune response to EBV infection, asthese may contribute to MS prevention,” he said.The study was supported by a grant from the National Institute ofNeurological Disorders and Stroke.
Inquisitive minds Ava Healy raises her hand during the Library Park Construction Club’s question-and-answer session held at the Honan-Allston Branch Library. Field work The children make an oval to mark a design on the park site. Library Park Construction Club Mapping the future Benjamin Ciliberto carries the park’s designs across the barren lot. It’s an exclusive club. Membership is hard to come by. Besides, it’s a lot of work.Make that fun.The Library Park Construction Club, an enthusiastic group of 7- to 10-year-olds, is taking the hands-on approach to watching its beloved Honan-Allston Branch Library get a facelift.About 20 kids braved the afternoon’s heat yesterday (July 7) to visit their neighborhood library and take part in an interactive session that took them beyond the storied stacks of the library and into a vacant field behind it.The field — a 1.74-acre of sun-scorched grass where a concrete plant used to sit — is about to become an inviting oasis of green through the creation of Library Park, slated to open next year. Construction is scheduled to begin next week with the help of Harvard University, its landscape architects and designers, and, of course, those local experts.“Is it going to be like a playground?” asked one eager child as designers Dennis Swinford and Emily Mueller De Celis showed the club architectural plans, including aerial photographs. “Is there going to be a fountain?” another asked. The park will be sort of like a playground, said Swinford, and there will be a fountain, the Harvard planner enthused. What’s a park without one?“A park and a library work really well together,” said Mueller De Celis, a senior associate at Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates. “We wanted to think about spaces where you could go and read a book.”“A lot of people said the back part of the library isn’t that pretty,” said Swinford referring to feedback received from the community during the park design process. “So there will be flowers everywhere. This is going to be a special park.”“There’ll be lots of trees, flowering trees like dogwoods, and multicolored plants,” added Mueller De Celis.The park’s plans paint it as a large green space, with a hill, winding paths, seating, and open lawns for reading and gatherings. A rain garden is even incorporated, a dedicated area where all rainwater is collected into a stream that will feed plant systems thriving on wet roots.Children’s librarian Sherry Eskin sees great potential in Library Park. “I think the park will provide a great educational space for story time and other programming. The library has a few courtyards, but it’s good to have more.”Swinford and Mueller De Celis invited the club outside to imagine what the field will soon become. With a map of the future park, the kids used landscape markers to flag landmarks like the event lawn and an outdoor classroom.This was the club’s first of six weekly sessions designed to introduce the children not only to the park, but to teach them about soil, trees, and other design and construction elements.Friends Kristian Eskew and Ricky Ciliberto were excited about their new stomping ground. “We’ll come here often,” said Eskew.“We just like to hang out and have fun,” added Ciliberto.Nearly all of the kids were imagining big future plans for the park’s use.“In this new park, I hope there’s lots of shade because it’s hot,” said 8-year-old Ava Healy. “The rain garden sounds really fun because I want to go in. And I might roll down the hill, and maybe I’ll read a book on the hill.”The sessions take place Wednesdays at 2:30 p.m. at the Honan-Allston Branch Library through Aug. 11. Sign up in advance by calling 617.496.6688, or e-mail [email protected] Building a Park 101 Emily Mueller De Celis (from left) and Dennis Swinford share park designs with the children. Board meeting During a presentation that shows the architectural plans for Library Park, the children discuss the merits of having a park on library grounds. Junior park planners Emily Mueller De Celis (left) tours the park site with the children. Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard Staff Photographer
Kentucky: Bode Trading Skis for HoovesWe’ll soon be seeing Bode Miller at the Derby instead of the Winter Olympics. During a recent interview on In Depth with Graham Bensinger, Miller revealed that he’s planning to become a horse trainer when his skiing career is over. The move was sparked by Miller’s friendship with well-known trainer Bob Baffert, who’s led multiple horses to Kentucky Derby wins. Baffert and Miller already own horses together, and Miller said he’s in the process of buying a training facility in Kentucky to begin his equestrian pursuits in earnest.Hike the A.T., Paddle the Mississippi Jared McCallum is having quite an adventure. The 28-year-old former Marine has been trying to figure out what to do with his life after an honorable discharge in 2009. Earlier this year, he decided to take a break from his work as a civilian security contractor in Afghanistan to hike the entire Appalachian Trail. After spending five months completing the famous 2,185-mile footpath, he decided he wasn’t quite ready to head home to Florida. Instead he’s working his way south slowly, paddling the entire Mississippi River—2,340 miles from Minnesota to Louisiana—in a canoe. Sporting a Forrest Gump-style beard with his dog Scout by his side, McCallum recently told Illinois’ Quad-City Times that he anticipates finishing around Christmas, and along the way he’s enjoyed some river magic, due to the kindness of others. “Someone let me camp in their front yard,” he told the paper. “You can’t do this kind of thing without the good people of America like that.”Dulles, Virginia: That Kid Is FastEarlier this fall, 9-year-old Caleb Hymans of Annandale, Va., ran quite a race at the Dulles Day on the Runway, finishing the 5K in 18:47. His time posted at the D.C.-area airport was certified by the Association of Road Race Statisticians as a world record for his age. “It was really cool,” Caleb told The Washington Post, “with all the airplanes flying overhead.”Berlin, Pennsylvania: Bug Spray Repels RobberDon’t mess with Annabelle Miller. The store clerk at Berlin’s CSI Coalfield Mini market recently proved she has uses for bug spray beyond keeping skeeters away. Miller grabbed a can when a masked would-be robber entered her store and demanded money. A surveillance video shows Miller instead giving the female crook a big dose of insecticide, which led to her retreat from the store. Miller later told a local news station, “I just got mad. I’ve got better things to do with my night than that.”Beyond the Blue RidgeGrand Prairie, Texas: Indoor Skiing in TexasThe Texas heat usually doesn’t bring skiing to mind, but in mid-October, city officials in Grand Prairie announced plans to build a 350,000-square-foot indoor skiing facility. CBS had the skinny on the $215 million joint project being called The Grand Alps Resort, which will be home to the longest indoor ski run in the world at 1,220 feet in length and 300 feet tall. The resort, attached to a 300-room luxury hotel, will also feature an Olympic half pipe, an ice climbing wall, and a luge track. The indoor ski resort has a tentative opening date of early 2018.Colorado Springs, Colorado: Changing Gears in Bike RacingIn October, USA Cycling revealed the 2015 national championship calendar and it featured some noticeable changes. First up is the addition of the inaugural Fat Bike National Championship, which will take big wheelers through a snowy course in Ogden, Utah, on Valentine’s Day. A big southern race—the USA Cycling Professional Criterium and Team Time Trial National Championships—will return to Greenville, S.C., with the time trial component as a new addition, as well as a new spring date (April 18-19). Soon after, young racers in the USA Cycling Collegiate Road National Championships will ride through the streets of Asheville, N.C., from May 8-10. Back in South Carolina, Rock Hill will host two events this year: the USA Cycling BMX National Championships on March 21 and the USA Cycling Masters Track National Championships from July 21-26. Not on the docket this year: a 24-hour mountain biking national championship, due to declining participation in the discipline.Peoria, Illinois: Cemetery 5KOwners of the Springdale Cemetery in Central Illinois are getting creative with their marketing initiatives. In an effort to encourage people to buy burial lots, the cemetery recently began hosting a series of 5K races to showcase the property’s scenery. “We know if we get people back into the cemetery, they’re going to be amazed at its beauty,” Bob Manning, chairman of the cemetery management authority, said in a story by the Associated Press. “Then, hopefully, they’ll think of us when time comes.”
The government said it would continue with auto-enrolment, set up an equivalent to a National Employment Savings Trust (NEST), maintain the protection provided by the Pension Protection Fund (PPF) and set up its own pensions regulator, albeit mimicking the current UK system.However, Wilson said: “There would be an opportunity for an independent Scotland to consolidate and codify all the rules and regulations around workplace pensions and, at the very least, not have the same number of pages we have to grapple with at a UK level.”Malcolm Paul, chairman of JLT Employee Benefits Scotland, agreed, saying the Scottish system could begin with a “fresh start”.He said an independent Scotland would also be free to decide to use one regulator for workplace pensions compared with the two currently used in the UK, a system often criticised.“One potential advantage of independence would be the fresh start,” he said. “Scotland could take the best ideas rather than being hamstrung by what is already in place.”The independent country would also not face as many hurdles in setting up a government-backed pension provider used within auto-enrolment, he said. The UK faced a long legal battle with the European Commission over the creation of NEST, as it contravened rules on state aid for companies operating in a private sector market.Eventually, it was agreed the UK government could loan NEST funding, which would have to be paid off over a number of years, with restrictions placed on NEST’s operations.Wilson said a Scottish NEST would not face as many hurdles, nor would it need such significant financing.“One would think a Scottish NEST would not need the same amount of set-up funds, but the mechanism could be comparable to NEST,” he said. “Scotland would not automatically be a member of the European Union, so it could provide state aid to any business it saw fit to.“But the government would need to consider its aspirations, which is to be a European Union member state.”Aside from creating a new regulatory regime, further detailed information on the future of Scotland’s financial systems remains illusive.Lawyers previously warned that defined benefit members were at risk of losing pension protection over issues arising from setting up a lifeboat fund in an independent Scotland. A ‘yes’ vote on Thursday’s referendum to determine whether Scotland will leave the United Kingdom could see a newly formed Scottish pensions industry being regulated by a simpler and more digestible set of rules, consultants have said.JLT Employee Benefits head of technical John Wilson said independence and the need to create and copy an entire regulatory system would allow Scotland to “consolidate and codify” rules and regulations around workplace pensions.The debate comes as the vote on independence nears, with residents of Scotland expected to take to the polls on 18 September.The current Scottish government and other advocates for independence set out their plans for a future Scottish pensions industry in a paper published in September 2013.
The UK’s £1.9bn (€2.3bn) Royal County of Berkshire Pension Fund is to invest £15m in a new fund aiming to direct institutional capital into the commercialisation of UK university research.The local authority pension fund committed the £15m to the British Innovation Fund (BIF), launched on 1 December by Future Planet Capital and Milltrust International Group.The fund has received commitments of £30m so far.Berkshire pension fund, administered by the Royal Borough of Windsor & Maidenhead (RBWM), is making the investment as part of a broader overhaul of its private equity portfolio, according to Nick Greenwood, pension fund manager of RBWM and chair of the BIF Investment Committee. The private equity portfolio has been redesigned to focus on three core themes, one of which is technology, he said.“We considered a range of investment possibilities in the US, South East Asia and elsewhere before deciding to focus on the UK university sector, which represents a massive un-tapped opportunity,” said Greenwood.“The valuations are also more attractive in the UK than they would be in Silicon Valley, and the investment industry around university research is less well-developed.”BIF recently secured a stake in Oxford Sciences Innovation as part of a £230m funding round for the firm, in which investors such as the Singaporean sovereign wealth fund Temasek and the Oman Investment Fund also participated.It plans to acquire other stake in companies focused on the commercialisation of UK university research and invest directly in start-ups reaching growth stage.The fund is structured as an Irish Collective Asset Vehicle (ICAV).Greenwood said the fund’s evergreen structure made it “a better fit” for this type of investment than the traditional venture capital model.“A standard VC fund has a fixed lifespan, forcing inefficient exits and liquidation of stakes in companies that are still being developed,” he said.“An ICAV structure gives us the opportunity to nurture investments appropriately.”Future Planet and Milltrust Agricultural Investments (MAI), a subsidiary of Milltrust International Group, are the sub-advisers to the new fund.The investment committee will also include members of the Future Planet and Milltrust Agricultural Investments teams, including Douglas Hansen-Luke, chair of Future Planet, and Griff Williams, CIO and co-founder of MAI.Hansen-Luke said there was “huge potential” for intellectual property commercialisation in the UK university sector, and that £400m in new long-term funding provided by the British Business Bank showed the UK government had recognised this gap.Simon Hopkins, chief executive at Milltrust International Group, said the BIF provided “a direct response” to concerns that Brexit would jeopardise funding for the development and subsequent commercialisation of research output from leading UK universities. Future Planet is a company aiming to build a “global university platform”, providing access to investment in top innovation centres. Milltrust is a global investment organisation located in Singapore and London, offering investment advice focused on emerging markets, liquid investments and real assets investments. During 2015-16, Berkshire pension fund increased its exposure to private debt and private equity funds – for example, in new emerging market infrastructure but also UK middle-market infrastructure and other private market investments in the UK, such as the private rented sector, private debt and technology.
RIPLEY COUNTY, Ind. — The Milan man that was arrested after rear-ending a tractor on State Road 350 in late December is now facing upgraded charges.According to officials, Richard Campos, 41, admitted to drinking 15 beers before getting behind the wheel and rear-ending the tractor.Campos also told investigators that he had been drunk for 3 consecutive days.Hubert Brown, of Whitewater Township Ohio, was the man driving the tractor, and later died of injuries sustained in the crash.Campos was originally charged with Operating while Intoxicated Causing Serious Bodily Injury, Operating while Intoxicated While Endangering another Person, and Operating while intoxicated with a Prior Conviction.The Operating while intoxicated causing serious bodily injury charge has been upgraded to Causing Death when Operating a Motor Vehicle while intoxicated while License was Suspended or Revoked.Campos is also facing a Habitual Offender charge stemming from a long criminal history dating back to 1994.
From front to back are: first row, (left to right) Teha Merkel, Danielle Baugh, Leah Broderick, Audrey Schwier and Tara Cummings; second row, Paige Blades, Emma Stuehrenberg, Bailey Hartman and Taylor Grehl; third row, Audrey Kinne, Corryn Caudy and Emily Muckerheide; and fourth row, Casper Stow, Scott Webb and Jacob Christie.Lawrenceburg, In. — The Dearborn County Hospital Foundation recognized 17 high school seniors at their annual scholarship banquet hosted by the Dearborn County Country Club. Each received a $500 scholarship from the DCH Foundation High School Senior Scholarship ProgramScholarship winners were residents and/or graduates from schools in Dearborn, Franklin, Ohio, Ripley or Switzerland Counties. All plant to continue their education at an accredited college or university in the fall.The Anna F. Woods Estate Award, which went to Casper T. Stow of Vevay, a graduate of Switzerland County High School, who will pursue an Associate’s Degree in Nursing at Ivy Tech Community College-Indianapolis.The Edward & Grace Gray Scholarship to Scott W. Webb, graduate of Rising Sun High School, who will major in occupational therapy at the University of Indianapolis.The Elizabeth Anderson Scholarship went to Teha R. Merkel, graduate of Jac-Cen-Del Junior-Senior High School. She will work toward her Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree at the University of Indianapolis.The DCH Medical Staff Award went to Jacob D. Christie of Batesville. Jacob is a graduate of Batesville High School and will pursue a Bachelor of Science in Nursing at the University of Indianapolis.The Dearborn-Ohio County Medical Society Scholarship was given to Corryn D. Caudy of West Harrison, a graduate of East Central High School who will be a pre-medicine student at Indiana University.Tara N. Cummings of Guilford was presented with the Helen Swaithes Conrad Scholarship. Tara is an East Central High School graduate who will attend IUPUI to earn her Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree.The Henry W. Conrad, M.D., Scholarship went to Leah A. Broderick of Bright, a graduate of East Central High School who will attend the University of Indianapolis for her Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree.Paige E. Blades, a graduate of Franklin County High School, received the Noshir R. Toddywalla, M.D., Memorial Scholarship. She will major in physical therapy at the University of Indianapolis. The award was presented by Jared Ewbank, representing the Toddywalla family.Two DCH Auxiliary Awards were given to Audrey L. Kinne of Vevay, a graduate of Shawe Memorial Junior-Senior High School, who will attend St. Mary-of-the-Woods College to major in physical therapy and Emily R. Muckerheide of Metamora, a graduate of Batesville High School, who will major in occupational therapy at the University of Indianapolis.E.G. McLaughlin, DCH Foundation Treasurer and President/CEO of United Community Bank, awarded four scholarships. The United Community Bank Award was given to Taylor M. Grehl of Aurora, a graduate of South Dearborn High School who will major in psychology at Manchester University. The Anna Cook O’Brien Awards went to Kelsey J. Ball of Brookville, and Laura M. Meer of Batesville. Kelsey is a graduate of Franklin County High School who will attend the University of Louisville for her Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree; and Laura, a graduate of Batesville High School, will study radiologic technology at Northern Kentucky University.The Lawrenceburg Lions Club Scholarship went to Audrey J. Schwier of Lawrenceburg. Audrey, a graduate of Lawrenceburg High School, will work toward her degree in pharmacy at the University of Cincinnati.The Dearborn County Hospital Federal Credit Union Awards went to Danielle E. Baugh of Versailles, a graduate of South Ripley High School who will attend the University of Evansville; Bailey M. Hartman of Batesville, a graduate of East Central High School going to Ball State University; and Emma L. Stuehrenberg of Cross Plains, a graduate of South Ripley High School who will earn her degree from Northern Kentucky University. All are pursuing nursing degrees.
SLAYTON, Minn. (Aug. 8) – Dustin Larson won his second IMCA Xtreme Motor Sports Modified tour feature Friday night, when the Redline Racing Parts North Star Series visited Murray County Speedway. Larson drew the pole for the 20-lapper and held onto the front spot through a series of early cautions. His brother Jeff made a charge during a long green flag run but had to settle for second. Dalton Magers, Jason Fisher and Josh Bonnstetter rounded out the top five. Dustin Larson had won the first North Star feature of his brief Modified career at Redwood Speedway on June 8.The Larson clan also celebrated an IMCA Sunoco Stock Car victory as patriarch Jim took the lead with three laps left in that contest and held off Matt Speckman. The checkers were his third of the season and career sixth.Chris Palsrok, Levi Feltman and Gary Mattison completed the top five.Other winners at Slayton were Justin Remus in the Karl Chevrolet Northern SportMods, Cory Probst in the IMCA Sunoco Hobby Stocks and Stephanie Forsberg in the Mach-1 Sport Compacts. Tire management was key for the Northern SportMods, where Remus passed Danny Myrvold for the front spot with five circuits left. Myrvold, Aaron Krohn, Matt Looft and Tony Rialson finished second through fifth, respectively. Probst picked up his division-leading eighth win, and third victory of the season, after passing Justin Luinenburg midway through the Hobby Stock 15-lapper. Luinenburg ended in second, with Matt Hanson, Trevor Holm and Jamie Songer in tow. Forsberg led all 10 circuits of the Sport Compact feature. Her father Neil moved up to second following a late restart but couldn’t reel in the leader. Joe Bunkofske was third.Feature ResultsModifieds – 1. Dustin Larson; 2. Jeff Larson; 3. Dalton Magers; 4. Jason Fisher; 5. Josh Bonnstetter; 6. Greg Jacobsen; 7. Randy Klein; 8. Justin Anderson; 9. Gary Oskerson. Stock Cars – 1. Jim Larson; 2. Matt Speckman; 3. Chris Palsrok; 4. Levi Feltman; 5. Gary Mattison; 6. Brad Lange; 7. Jake Bruns; 8. Jon Schmidt; 9. Dean Nething; 10. Wayne Oftedahl; 11. David Breyfogle; 12. David Reisdorfer; 13. Devin Kuehne; 14. Luke Sathoff; 15. Jim Gregoire; 16. Kevin Bruns; 17. Kevin DeBaere. Northern SportMods – 1. Justin Remus; 2. Danny Myrvold; 3. Aaron Krohn; 4. Matt Looft; 5. Tony Rialson; 6. Tom Brown; 7. Dan Ahlers; 8. Adam Ecker; 9. Bruce Egeland; 10. Dan Paplow; 11. Jim Gregoire; 12. Devon McMartin; 13. Randy Hook; 14. Jason Oskerson; 15. Brian Rogers; 16. Brycen Johnson; 17. Cole Bents; 18. Nick Dieter. Hobby Stocks – 1. Cory Probst; 2. Justin Luinenburg; 3. Matt Hanson; 4. Trevor Holm; 5. Jamie Songer; 6. Adam Snyder; 7. Wes Jahnz; 8. Neil Forsberg; 9. Ernie Dailey; 10. Brad Snyder; 11. Eric Gillette; 12. Mark Janssen; 13. Katie Gillette; 14. Bruce Kingery; 15. Clyde Krog; 16. Travis Radke; 17. Derek Platt; 18. John Mitchell.Sport Compacts – 1. Stephanie Forsberg; 2. Neil Forsberg; 3. Joe Bunkofske; 4. Scott Espey; 5. Kyle Ewert; 6. Cole Bassett; 7. Chase Brocker; 8. Robby Severson.
Brookville, IN— Stone Church Road from Blooming Grove to Upper Smoky Hollow will be closed until further notice due to culvert replacement.